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Depression Breakthrough?

Normally, I go out of my way not to write about specific pharmaceutical drugs or health care practitioners on my blog. However, rules are made to be broken and I have decided this is one case where I am comfortable breaking my own rules.

A friend sent me the following link:

New Form Of Ketamine Treats Depression “Like Magic”

The above article talks of research published August 20th in the prestigious medical journal, Science. I attempted to find the original source for this story (that Science article) but when I searched for the article on their site, I found this:

Antidepressant Action of Ketamine
Science 20 August 2010
329: 883 [DOI: 10.1126/science.329.5994.883-d]
(in This Week in Science)

That article is not accessible for free. As I am not on a position to pay to see the Science article, I have had to content myself with Googling to read various links that refer to it. (Sometimes I miss my university days where I didn’t have to pay an arm and a leg every time I wanted to read a medical journal article).

In any event, if anyone reading this DOES have access to “Science”, would you please be so kind as to leave me a blog comment letting me know?

In the meantime, it is exciting to know that there is a potential treatment for depression that is supposed to be far faster-acting than previous treatments.

Here is an excerpt regarding the research published in the August 20, 2010 Science journal:

Senior author Dr Ronald Duman, professor of psychiatry and pharmacology at Yale, said that he and his team found that the drug not only improved the rats’ depression-like behaviors, it also restored connections between neurons or brain cells that had been damaged by chronic stress. They called this “synaptogenesis”.

They hope their findings will help to speed up the development of a safe and easy to administer version of ketamine, which has already proved to be effective in severely depressed patients, they said.

Mayo Clinic: Pain and depression: Is there a link?

I have written about suicide before on multiple occasions. Endochick and I have been receiving DAILY blog traffic on search strings like “endometriosis and suicide” for months now. In fact, that has been the most commonly searched phrase for my blog. It is a sobering thought for me.

suicidepreventionlifeline.org

I take this topic very seriously and always make sure to list the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline number in posts that mention suicide:

1-800-273-TALK
This number works 24/7, 365 days of the year in the U.S.

The website for this same organization is:

National Suicide Prevention Lifeline

Here is their Facebook page:

Facebook page for National Suicide Prevention Lifeline

I encourage readers outside the U.S. to post comments with similar suicide prevention hotline numbers.

If you’d like to see another post I came across recently about the topic of suicide, see below:

Suicide, Chronic Pain, Real People

The connection between chronic illness/pain and depression is a common one. No matter how alone you may feel, you are never alone. If you are having thoughts of suicide, PLEASE call this number: 1-800-273-TALK. The trained professionals there can help.

This post was written by Jeanne at http://chronichealing.com. Copyright © Jeanne — chronichealing.com. All rights reserved.


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Reading: Depression Breakthrough?

21 comments

1 Jannie FunsterNo Gravatar { 08.21.10 at 7:37 am }

I am not in a position to pay for Science articles either, but the regeneration of synapses sure is interesting. Kelly and I were talking the other day about nerve and nerve damage.

Very interesting. I wonder how long and how deep they have researched the new drug? I’m sure there’ll soon be a lot of info on Ketamine available. I’m assuming, anyway.

Going to look at your video now!!

xo
.-= Jannie Funster´s last blog ..Great Peeps To Know — Recap One =-.

2 AmandaNo Gravatar { 08.21.10 at 10:18 am }

How annoying that you cannot access it without paying a ridiculous amount to subscribe… I understand they put a lot of time and effort in to creating these reports but surely they could do a “one-off” payment for single articles… or can you do that and I just missed the option?

Fingers crossed that someone will have access to it and be able to give you a better idea of its content and even more importantly that this research may go a long way towards helping people suffering from depression xx
.-= Amanda´s last blog ..Rebalancing =-.

3 JeanneNo Gravatar { 08.22.10 at 12:27 am }

Jannie,

Well, I am fortunate to have some very amazing friends and one of them got me access to the Science article today. It is fascinating! I wish it were possible to post a link to the entire article but, unfortunately, it’s not. I will post a few snippets I saw as highlights (you’ll see them notated as such).

First, I should clarify that Ketamine is actually not a new drug. It has been used in the past for things such as treating reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD)/complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) or as an anesthetic.

The drug used for clinical trials is ketamine, a non-selective NMDA receptor antagonist”. [Source: mTOR-Dependent Synapse Formation Underlies the Rapid Antidepressant Effects of NMDA Antagonists, Nanxin Li, et al., Science 329, 959 (2010); DOI: 10.1126/science.1190287].

NMDA stands for N-methyl-D-aspartic acid. So, Ketamine is the specific drug they used to conduct this research study but by the end of the article they said, “Ketamine is a psychotomimetic drug with abuse potential, and a more selective agent would be desirable for clinical antidepressant use”. [Source: mTOR-Dependent Synapse Formation Underlies the Rapid Antidepressant Effects of NMDA Antagonists, Nanxin Li, et al., Science 329, 959 (2010); DOI: 10.1126/science.1190287].

Essentially they used Ketamine for this particular research study but they don’t seem to see Ketamine itself being the best option to be prescribed to treat depression. (By the way, the dose used to address depression in this study is different than what would be used to treat RSD/CRPS). It sounds to me like this study seems to open the door for development of antidepressants that act very rapidly (in contrast to the antidepressants currently on the market).

If you look at the Wikipedia entry for Ketamine, it has not yet been updated to reference the new Science article. It does mention, however, that this type of effect (of Ketamine on depression) has been noticed previously.

From that Wikipedia article on Ketamine, I came across the link below (in references) in a section called “Experimental Antidepressant Use”:

A Randomized Add-on Trial of an N-methyl-D-aspartate Antagonist in Treatment-Resistant Bipolar Depression [Archives of General Psychiatry: Vol. 67 No. 8, August 2010]

So, this isn’t the first time anyone has ever wondered if Ketamine could have such an effect on patients who have depression caused by what the Science article called a “major depressive disorder”. However, this article in Science seems to me to be a breakthrough in the aspect that it builds on prior suspicions that such rapid response might be possible. Also, Science is a very reputable publication. What’s also really interesting is that patients who had been on multiple medications prior (and whose depression was resistant to them) had a rapid favorable response from just one dose of Ketamine! That is really quite striking when compared to any antidepressant currently on the market.

More from the article:

“The mechanisms underlying rapid antidepressant actions are likely more complicated than simple NMDA receptor blockade and so far have not been identified. We carried out a series of studies to examine the cellular signaling pathways that mediate the behavioral actions of NMDA receptor blockade, focusing on signaling cascades known to rapidly influence synaptic plasticity” [Source: mTOR-Dependent Synapse Formation Underlies the Rapid Antidepressant Effects of NMDA Antagonists, Nanxin Li, et al., Science 329, 959 (2010); DOI: 10.1126/science.1190287].

and…

“These results indicate that ketamine induction of synapse-associated protein synthesis provides a mechanism for rapid reversal of stress and/or depression-mediated deficits and could enhance PFC-mediated connectivity and function”. [Source: mTOR-Dependent Synapse Formation Underlies the Rapid Antidepressant Effects of NMDA Antagonists, Nanxin Li, et al., Science 329, 959 (2010); DOI: 10.1126/science.1190287]

The reference to “rapid reversal of stress” really caught my eye. So did “synaptic plasticity”.

All in all, a very interesting article indeed!

Thank you for leaving a comment on my YouTube video, Jannie!

Amanda:

Well, I cannot tell a lie. I was annoyed when I reached the screen that let me know this was not going to be a free article. I didn’t even attempt to set up a login for Science because any time I have reached a login screen like that after clicking the option to see the “full text” of the article, it has resulted in a waste of time because it has eventually gotten me to a screen where you have to pay. So, I didn’t bother wasting my time setting up a login that would only get me to the price screen. That waste of time to reach the price would have annoyed me more. No matter what the price would have been, I wouldn’t have been able to pay it. Thankfully, a friend kindly shared the article with me. So, I have now read the whole thing (as I explained above). It is entirely possible that there was a “one-off” option for a specific article. That’s not uncommon. All I knew was that I had no money available to pay for access to it.

The article really is exciting. It’s unlike anything I’ve ever heard of before. As I mentioned to Jannie above, it wasn’t the very first time anyone made a connection between a drug like Ketamine and the rapid lifting of depression symptoms. However, this detailed article appears (to me) to be a ray of hope for many. Apparently, it’s a particularly hopeful sign for patients whose depression has been most resistant to treatment with medications currently available.

The part that talked about “rapid reversal of stress” was just fascinating to me. It’s exciting all around.

~~~

Jeanne
xo

4 Vera RodriguesNo Gravatar { 08.22.10 at 12:42 am }

I so appreciate all ur blogs! I don’t have that info either but glad appreciate the info! <3

5 JeanneNo Gravatar { 08.22.10 at 12:55 am }

Vera,

A friend had sent me a link to an article that was a brief synopsis of the Science article. The Science article itself was far more informative (as I knew it would be). It really is exciting that such promising research is being done. 😉

Jeanne

6 Matthew SmithNo Gravatar { 08.22.10 at 7:10 am }

I haven’t been able to read the Science article either, but I did read an article in the UK Daily Mail (normally not a reliable source of information, but this seems fairly balanced) here. The article makes it clear that ketamine as it stands isn’t a practical solution to depression because it has to be given intravenously and can cause short-term psychotic side-effects, but “scientists said ketamine could act as a guide to highly-promising new treatments for depression”. The scientist quoted as saying it’s “like a magic drug” says that one dose is effective for seven to ten days, so an intravenous dose of ketamine that frequently won’t be all that practical as a treatment for depression.

Also, ketamine has a lot of side effects – it’s used as a recreational drug and some long-term users have reported that it caused considerable weight loss and incontinence.

7 JeanneNo Gravatar { 08.22.10 at 11:22 pm }

Matthew,

I have now read the Science article and it’s fascinating. The Science article does not propose using Ketamine to treat depression. (I touched on this in my comment above to Jannie). Ketamine just happens to be a non-selective NMDA receptor antagonist drug that they used for this research study. The Science article never proposes that Ketamine is a “practical treatment for depression”.

NMDA stands for N-methyl-D-aspartic acid. Ketamine is the specific drug they used to conduct this research study but by the end of the article they said, “Ketamine is a psychotomimetic drug with abuse potential, and a more selective agent would be desirable for clinical antidepressant use”. [Source: mTOR-Dependent Synapse Formation Underlies the Rapid Antidepressant Effects of NMDA Antagonists, Nanxin Li, et al., Science 329, 959 (2010); DOI: 10.1126/science.1190287].

The reason this research study is so exciting to me is that it appears to open the door for (potentially) massive improvement in the treatment of depression.

The Science magazine article (SCIENCE VOL 329 20 AUGUST 2010 959) said:

Most notably, available treatments require weeks or months to produce a therapeutic response, and only about one-third of patients respond to the first medication prescribed”. [M. H. Trivedi et al., Am. J. Psychiatry 163, 28 (2006).]

The Science article (SCIENCE VOL 329 20 AUGUST 2010 959) went on to say:

“In contrast, recent studies demonstrate that a single, low dose of a glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist produces a rapid (within hours) antidepressant response that lasts for up to 7 days…” [R. M. Berman et al., Biol. Psychiatry 47, 351 (2000) and C. A. Zarate Jr. et al., Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 63, 856 (2006)]

“… and is effective in Major depressive disorder patients who are resistant to traditional antidepressants [J. H. Krystal, Swiss Med. Wkly. 137, 215 (2007)].

[Source: SCIENCE VOL 329 20 AUGUST 2010 959]

Just the mere fact that patients who did not respond to medications currently available to treat depression responded to this (and so rapidly) looks promising to me.

As far as one dose being effective for seven to ten days, that may sound like a drawback… but it is actually a vast improvement when compared to the medications currently on the market. I fully understand that Ketamine is often (not always) given intravenously. (I just heard from a chronically ill friend who uses Ketamine in a nasal spray form). Again, the researchers are not proposing that doctors should start prescribing Ketamine to treat depression. What I took out of the article is that this research opens the door to new treatments for depression (ones that may be superior in some ways to any of the medications used currently).

As far as side effects are concerned, generally speaking, medications used to treat depression have a tendency/potential to generate various side effects. Again, as far as Ketamine is concerned specifically… the study does not propose that Ketamine should suddenly be prescribed to treat depression. Nevertheless, this research is quite exciting.

Jeanne

8 Diana LeeNo Gravatar { 08.22.10 at 11:49 pm }

Actually Ketamine does not have to be given by IV. My specialist prescribes it for me to be compounded into a nasal spray. I don’t use it for depression, but I have had good results for a pain condition. It certainly has a bad reputation, but I don’t think that is an adequate reason to not explore its potential as a useful therapy.

As an NDMA receptor antagonist it opens up the possibility of similar drugs being used that are more readily available such as Namenda.

9 JeanneNo Gravatar { 08.23.10 at 12:18 am }

Diana,

That’s interesting that Ketamine can be compounded into a nasal spray. I’m happy to hear it is helping your pain. Like any prescription that can be abused as a recreation drug, Ketamine has gotten the ‘bad reputation’ you referenced. I agree that media hype about “Special K” is not an adequate reason to not explore its potential as a useful therapy.

It really is exciting that additional (and possibly superior) medication treatment options could be opened up by research like that in the Science article.

Jeanne

10 RellacafaNo Gravatar { 08.23.10 at 8:26 pm }

I don’t have the energy to read through the links right now, but thanks for posting on an interesting topic! I noticed that you mentioned the dosage as being much lower than that used for chronic pain treatment, sounds interesting as I know that the crazy, crazy hallucinations that I experienced during my infusion weren’t of any help to my state of mind ;P Ketamine is one of those things that they just don’t know enough about yet, I’m always interested in finding out more. Thanks for the links, shall check em out when my brain is in a better mode ;D x
.-= Rellacafa´s last blog ..Interacting Online- The Joys- The Struggles &amp Surviving Unharmed =-.

11 EndochickNo Gravatar { 08.23.10 at 11:25 pm }

Jeanne,

I was going to discuss this drug and it’s risk of dependence, but I see someone has already done that. It’s interesting, though, how common drugs that have existed for years are being found to have new implications.
.-= Endochick´s last blog ..Mindfulness =-.

12 Matthew SmithNo Gravatar { 08.24.10 at 2:33 pm }

About the “abuse potential” issue with ketamine, the other day I read of a drug with apparent promise for treating fibromyalgia being refused approval by a panel of “independent experts” at the FDA, among them an FBI agent. Surely this isn’t a good reason for not making a drug available; after all, most drugs have side-effects and some are narcotic and all pharmaceutical drugs are controlled. People who are chronic pain often have access to morphine or diamorphine which they use through a syringe driver and they need to keep supplies at home. The abuse potential of that is well-known, but when someone needs it for pain relief and is bedridden, they won’t be able to make it to the clinic and quite often, neither will their carer.

13 JeanneNo Gravatar { 08.24.10 at 4:13 pm }

Hayley:

Yes, the dosage that was used in this research study to target depression was definitely lower than that used for chronic pain treatment (such as what you had received for RSD/CRPS). I’m sorry you had a bad experience with it. That must have been frightening. What they seemed to be emphasizing with the study published in Science was that they weren’t proposing that Ketamine itself should suddenly begin to be prescribed to treat depression. They said, “the drug used for clinical trials is Ketamine, a non-selective NMDA receptor antagonist” and “Ketamine is a psychotomimetic drug with abuse potential, and a more selective agent would be desirable for clinical antidepressant use“.

What I took away from the article was that this study represents hope because it seems to open the door for development of antidepressants that act very rapidly (in contrast to the antidepressants currently on the market). Also, the fact that Ketamine helped patients who were depressed and had not responded to other treatments was an item that seemed particularly exciting. Ketamine is just one example of a non-selective NMDA receptor antagonist. The way they were talking is like there is this whole class of related drugs to potentially be explored. Ketamine happens to be the one they used for this research study but it sounds like this may be a “key in the door” so to speak as far as opening up a whole new area of exploration in finding new treatment options for depression with the potential for operating much more rapidly and treating previously resistant-to-treatment depression. It was a very interesting article. I hope you are feeling much better soon!

Endochick:

There are so many drugs with the potential for abuse. The authors of this study made it clear that they weren’t suggesting doctors should start writing scripts for Ketamine to treat depression. Yes, it is interesting when medications that have been in use for awhile are discovered to have uses for different conditions than those for which they were originally prescribed. Often, these discoveries seem to be made by accident… such as when it’s observed that a patient taking a particular medication suddenly has improvement in one of their other conditions upon taking the medication for the first condition.

From reading through different links online, it appears to me that enough patients who were given Ketamine for conditions other than depression (for example, patients who were given Ketamine for chronic pain) showed improvement in their symptoms of depression that it got noticed. The two things that struck me the most were the speed with which the depression symptoms improved in this study and the fact that patients who had been on other treatments for depression prior to the study had depression symptoms that responded during this study (where they hadn’t before). Discovery of a way to treat depression that was previously resistant to treatment is really exciting. This study seems to pave the way from what I can tell.

Matthew:

Oh dear. It’s probably best that I not even get started about the FDA. Let’s just say that the Food and Drug Administration has room for improvement. On one hand, many drugs they have approved (and that are then seemingly perceived by most of society as “safe”) later get recalled altogether or get black box warnings. On the other hand, there are medications that fail to get approval where some might argue that they are safer than drugs the FDA has already approved. I didn’t see the article you read about a fibromyalgia treatment that was turned down for FDA approval. As a fibromyalgia patient, it pains me (no pun intended) that a potential treatment might have gotten turned down solely because of abuse potential. Again, I didn’t see the article in question but I can use my imagination. Of course, there are still doctors in the United States who don’t “believe in” fibromyalgia. Don’t get me started on that. (I’ve done whole posts on that). That’s another story (or should I say… Pandora’s Box?). If abuse potential is truly their concern, one would think they could simply classify it as a “controlled substance”.

Again, I didn’t see the article in question for the drug the FDA turned down to treat fibromyalgia. I do know that there are many people suffering greatly with fibromyalgia symptoms… and that it would be a shame if the FDA is turning down an effective treatment based on abuse potential alone. Do you have a link to that article available, Matthew? As far as your comment about “all pharmaceutical drugs being controlled”, what I meant (above) by “controlled” was that in the United States there are certain drugs classified as “controlled substances” (such as narcotics and certain hormones). I don’t know exactly how such drugs are classified outside the U.S. (I used to work in a pharmacy and then for a drug company/wholesaler many years ago. So, I’m familiar with what the laws here were then for “controlled substances”). As you pointed out, if someone has pain severe enough to necessitate a narcotic like morphine, they may very well be bedridden and to sick to travel to a clinic or hospital setting.

~~~

Jeanne

14 Matthew SmithNo Gravatar { 08.24.10 at 5:47 pm }

The article is on a Wall Street Journal blog here. The drug is already in use for narcolepsy; the question was whether to extend its use for fibro also (which makes even less sense than rejecting a new drug).

What I meant about drugs being “controlled” is that their sale, importation etc is controlled. They don’t just let pharmaceuticals be sold to just anyone, they are distributed only to doctors or hospitals who then issue them on prescription. The same is true in most of the developed world (in many third world countries, you can just buy medicines over the counter). So if the drug is licensed as a prescription-only drug, that’s not a recipe for masses of it to hit the streets, because there will be some control of its distribution. After all, the drugs which are on the streets aren’t leaked from the pharmaceutical industry even though morphine is used in hospitals and cocaine in dentistry.

15 JeanneNo Gravatar { 08.25.10 at 2:35 am }

Matthew,

Thank you very much for the Wall Street Journal link: FBI Agent, 19 Others Vote Against Jazz Pharma’s Drug For Fibromyalgia.

It was fascinating. I followed a hyperlink from that article to this:

FDA Panel Live Blog

I wish you could have seen the interesting conversation that was sparked on my Facebook page by that WSJ article and the live blogging link about the FDA proceedings. For a medication the FDA approved in 2002 to treat narcolepsy (which has a good safety record!) to be voted down as a fibromyalgia treatment (in light of the details covered in the records of the live blogging of the FDA proceedings, which I read completely) is baffling. There was a strong case made for the efficacy of that medication to treat fibromyalgia.

If the FDA is as concerned as it claims to be about safety (because of the GHB factor), then I don’t understand why/how the drug got approved in 2002 to treat narcolepsy! After reading the records of the FDA proceedings, it struck me as if the FDA panel members seemed to have had their minds made up before the proceedings began.

There are very tight controls in place for the monitoring of the medication mentioned above for narcolepsy. I fully understand that there are far more fibromyalgia patients than narcolepsy patients. However, it would certainly be possible for there to be tight controls in place for the very same drug to be used for fibromyalgia too. While there are some prescription drugs that do “hit the streets”, it’s my understanding that this would be far, far less likely to happen with this drug (than many others FDA approved already) because the cost associated with this drug is quite high. (Less expensive drugs – including opiates – would be far more likely to enter the “prescriptions abused on the street” group of meds).

While it’s true that the prescriptions drugs that get leaked onto the street are nearly always leaked there because people don’t handle their prescriptions properly (i.e. either they are stolen from relatives or people the “stealer” is providing home health “care” for… or, rarely, patients themselves share/sell their own prescriptions with others) and while it would be against any pharmaceutical company’s self-interest to “leak” drugs into the streets, the FDA panel seemed to be fixated on safety concerns revolving around the drug “hitting the streets”).

When you mentioned cocaine use in the dental field, were you referring to the use of drugs like Novocain, which is one of several drugs that are listed as being a cocaine analog? That was what I assumed you meant until I saw this “cocaine as a legal medicine” section (scroll down to bottom of this link).

Reading about analogs here led me to read about the Federal Analog Act. That prompted me to read other articles about analogs in general (not just the type covered by this act).

It sounds like an analog can be made to do away with undesirable effects while retaining desired ones. That made me wonder if an analog of Ketamine could be produced that would be more effective than what’s currently available to treat depression (whether by acting more rapidly or simply by being effective for patients whose depression was previously unresponsive to other medications) but that would not have the drawbacks that Ketamine potentially has (potential for abuse, troublesome side effects such as the hallucinations Hayley mentioned). Whether such side effects are dose-dependent or not, I don’t know. The authors of the study came right out and said “a more selective agent would be desirable for clinical antidepressant use”.

I think the Science article represents a ray of hope.

Jeanne

16 Matthew SmithNo Gravatar { 08.25.10 at 7:29 am }

I was referring to its use generally; I was not sure if novocaine was a coca derivative or if it were an entirely synthetic product. But certainly, I had read of the use of coca leaves to produce coca for dentistry purposes (the leaves are also used in soft drink making, but as I read, only one company has the licence to import them – they are otherwise treated more or less as if the plant and the illegal drug are one and the same thing).

17 JeanneNo Gravatar { 08.26.10 at 1:42 pm }

Matthew:

I normally shy away from discussing brand names on blog posts and blog comments… but I seem to have thrown that rule out the window with this particular post.

So, here is some history about the cola you referenced:

Coca Cola formula

Jeanne

18 GabrielaNo Gravatar { 10.26.10 at 5:46 pm }

Dear Jeanne,

Thank you for your post. I am always looking for new treatments for depression that do not involve the use of antidepressants. I wish I could learn more about this medicament you are suggesting.
I believe that antidepressants have helped many but I am against the indiscriminate use of them. We are seeing teenagers and even children “hooked” on antidepressants.
I believe that antidepressants bring a “quick fix” for a problem that must be addressed from the core. What I mean by that, is that the treatments for depression should involve a more “wholesome” approach and not only a “quick fix”. Cognitive therapy and depression support groups can make a lot more in the long run for a person suffering from depression than anti-depressants alone….
.-= Gabriela´s last blog ..Beautiful Inspirational Prayers =-.

19 JeanneNo Gravatar { 10.27.10 at 3:58 pm }

Hi Gabriela,

I included the information I could in the post itself and in follow-up blog comments. The article I referenced was in the journal Science as mentioned above. Before I get into any general discussion about treatment options, please refer to my disclaimer.

You indicated that you wish that you could learn more about this medication I am “suggesting”. I want to be very clear that I am not suggesting the use of any particular mediation. I am not a health care professional (and even if I were I would not be suggesting treatment options online). The purpose of this post was simply to share information I had heard of about a medication that is being researched for use in possibly treating depression.

I too believe that antidepressants have helped many. I am against the indiscriminate use of any medication of any kind.

Research has shown that “combination therapy” is more effective than either medication or therapy alone. See below for a link to one example of such research:

Combined pharmacotherapy and psychological treatment for depression: a systematic review.

I believe that an approach where the person’s illnesses (be they mental or physical) are treated holistically is superior to approaches that don’t look at the big picture.

There are different types of depression and different severities. Evaluation by qualified medical professionals is very important.

Therapy can absolutely be helpful. As you mentioned, having therapy and support groups as part of the big picture is more likely to be effective than just medication alone.

Thank you for your feedback.

Jeanne

20 JaneNo Gravatar { 07.08.13 at 7:14 am }

I find this really interesting, especially as most of my knowledge regarding Ketamine is as a hospital grade anesthetic. However, I am open to any traditional or alternative types of medicine. Especially as so many anti depressants used to treat Fibromyalgia for depression or just to assist with insomnia are so taxing. I will be keeping my eye out for more info on this.

21 JeanneNo Gravatar { 08.01.13 at 1:57 am }

This is just a quick message for anyone who has posted recent comments on my blog. I have been stuck offline (for too many reasons to begin to describe!) and I’ve never been so behind on moderating blog comments – but I will reply to each comment just as soon as I am able. Thank you very much for your patience… especially anyone who is new to my blog. I promise I’m not usually so slow at posting and replying to comments. Thanks for your understanding!

Jeanne

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